Tuesday, May 11, 2004

Use of GIS in Transportation for Disaster Management

Author: Anil Marsani
Transportation College, South East University, Nanjing, China.
E-mail: anilmarsani@hotmail.com
Tel: 0086-25-83791509

Abstract: - This paper points out the probable consequences of natural disaster especially earthquake in Nepal. Different stages of disaster management are described and the role of transportation in disastrous condition with the use of GIS in transportation for disaster management is pointed out.

Key words: Natural disaster, Earthquake risk, Disaster management, GIS in transportation

Natural Disasters in Nepal

Disaster is a tragic interruption to development process. It causes great loss of lives destroying capital investments in infrastructures and disrupting social networks. Disaster can be artificial (man-made) or natural. Preventive measures should always be attempted to reduce the consequences of disasters though it is highly unpredictable especially the natural ones.

Nepal is a disaster-prone country because of its geo-physical condition, which is the main cause of natural disasters. It is vulnerable to natural disaster like floods, landslides, epidemics, fire, earthquake, windstorm, avalanche, thunderbolt, glacier-lake outburst and cold wave and they cause considerable losses to life and property in Nepal every year. The earthquakes of 1934, 1980, 1988 and the flood of July 1993 and July 2002 are among the most devastating natural disasters the country has seen in modern times .

Earthquake Risk in Nepal

Nepal is a seismic prone country with high risk of earthquakes. Past records have shown that Nepal can expect earthquakes of magnitude five to six on the Richter scale every two to three years, 7 to 7.5 every five years and two earthquakes of intensities 7.5-8 on the Richter scale every forty years and one earthquake of magnitude 8+ every eighty years. . Recent studies indicate the presence of a dangerous seismic gap in central and western parts of Nepal hinting towards another big magnitude earthquake anytime in future.

The last great earthquake to strike Nepal was in 1934 with a magnitude of 8.4 Richter. It caused considerable damage to buildings along with great loss of lives. Since then the population in Nepal has skyrocketed urban development unplanned and construction practices have deteriorated. It is reported that out of the 21 cities around the world that lie in seismic zones, Kathmandu is at the highest risk of death, destruction, and unprepared ness. If the similar earthquake to that of 1934 were to strike now it would cause a great loss of lives with devastating effects to social structure and national economy.

What will happen?

Experts say earthquakes don’t kill people, but building collapses do. Earthquakes are an unavoidable part of Kathmandu valley's future . A large earthquake in or around the valley today would cause significantly greater human and physical damage and economic crisis. The situation is even worse due to city’s extremely high urban density, unmonitored constructions, encroachment of public places, narrowed and cramped streets. Kathmandu has an uncontrolled urban development with a 6.5 percent annual growth rate. The population of the city is ever growing and is now around two million and some 6,000 concrete houses are built every year, usually without proper engineering supervision. It is not hard to imagine what will happen the next time an 8.0 magnitude earthquake hits Kathmandu is the real concern.

The study conducted by The Kathmandu Valley Earthquake Management Action Plan, has estimated the following consequences:
v Up to 40,000 people could be killed and close to 100,000 injured
v Over 60 percent of all buildings in the Valley would be severely damaged
v 95 percent of water pipes, 40 percent of electricity lines and 60 percent of telephone lines will be damaged
v Almost half of the bridges in the valley could be impassable
v 10 percent of paved roads will have moderate damage, such as deep crack or subsidence. In addition, many of the narrowest streets in the valley will be blocked by debris form damaged buildings. Bhaktapur may not be accessible form Kathmandu or Lalitpur because of road and bridge damage.
v The international and domestic airport will be out of order and be isolated from the rest of the Kathmandu Valley due to its location at liquefaction prone areas thereby limiting emergency aid from outside of the valley.
v The access roads to the Valley will be out of order.
v There will be a risk of fire breakout, caused by explosions due to gas, petrol or leaks of chemical products.
v The army will have the difficult task of maintaining order as well as coordinating first aid
v The estimation for the arrival of first aid from outside the Kingdom of Nepal is at least 3 or 4 days.

Disaster Management and transportation:

The disaster management can be classified into two parts: pre-disaster management and post- disaster management. Pre-disaster management concerns with the measures to prevent negative impacts from hazard events and to be better prepared for those that are not prevented whereas post-disaster relief and recovery measures. Pre-disaster management is risk management that has three components: risk identification, risk reduction, and risk transfer and preparedness, the post-disaster phase is devoted to emergency response, rehabilitation and reconstruction.

Transportation facilities can itself suffer from both artificial and natural disaster. Transportation system can play crucial role in disaster response if it is monitored well and assessed properly. An effective transportation system provides much help to take the affected peoples to safer places and rescue and relief material to the disaster hit areas with in very less time. In either a natural disaster or man made event the transportation network accommodates the following functions:
v Evacuate the population in the area of the event
v Provide emergency access to the site of the incident
v Allow the public to bypass the affected area
v Respond to the impacts of restrictions to access in the affected area.

For effective use of transport facilities for disaster management, damage assessment is one of the most important steps in earthquake-related emergency response. Quick and accurate identification of the nature, severity, and extent of damage is critical for timely route-open/close decisions. The available public transport system can be used to provide evacuations, transport, and shelter for emergency personnel and volunteers, and roadblocks as directed by police. It can also be used for evacuation of local residents; transport of emergency workers and volunteers to and from an emergency sites; supplemental transportation for people and supplies within a city or county during recovery; use of air-conditioned/heated buses as shelter/respite facilities for emergency workers and victims; communications support, if radio-equipped; monitoring of road and weather conditions; determining safe travel routes; and supplemental vehicles for police or other local agency.

Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) can track the movement of vehicles, monitor, control, manage the flow of traffic and reroute traffic in response to disasters. Advanced traffic management systems also can play a major role in disaster recovery and response. For example, a car navigation system can guide drivers along detour routes when they come across major damage caused by natural disaster. ITS can inform strangers by cellular phone of where to evacuate in case of emergency.

Use of GIS in transportation for Disaster Management

GIS technology can be effectively used to both pre-disaster and post-disaster planning. Planning for pre-disaster management involves predicting the area and time of a possible disaster and the impacts on human life, property, and environment. Some examples are planning and design of transportation network and the design of vehicles fleet and planning of its source for emergency purposes. It allows transportation facilities and network to be put to optimal utilization for relief and evacuation purposes. A reliable map depicting the location of the emergency resources like water, service units, food warehouses, transport and communication networks and other utilities is very crucial in disaster management with acquisition of real-time (RT) information about the status of the recourses.

GIS allows quickly accessing and visually displaying critical information by location that helps in developing action plans. Emergency disaster management requires response, incident mapping, establishing priorities, developing action plans, and implementing the plan to protect lives, property, and the environment.

Transportation facilities and network may again be under pressure due to the movement of the people to and from the affected area. Movement to the affected area may be in the form of relief or rescue teams (Police, Fire brigade, Ambulances) and material suppliers, while those from the affected area may be the injured being taking away to safer location, and those escaping from danger. This could be chaotic if the redundancy in the transportation system is not taken as a part of disaster management. The transport network has to be well managed with considerations for shortest time taken for traffic congestion, collision avoidance, and Police chases in case of terrorisms or sabotages. GIS can be used in managing traffic volumes in a spatially reference context, viewing the paths as a transportation network. The knowledge about the status of network at that instance is very significant to tackle such a situation. Some of the important decisions that need to be taken in this phase include route planning under cost, time and network congestion constraints for evacuation, medication and relief, prioritization of activities, tracking and scheduling of vehicles and location of service and relief station.

Route Planning is one of the aspects of Transport telemetics or application of computers to transport management systems. Roads are part of the infrastructure but can also turn into bottlenecks in case of disaster. When deploying vehicles to help mitigate disaster impacts, it is necessary to determine the best route to follow to save time and best cost/benefit ratio. It is also to quickly assess the extent of damage on individual routes so that alternative routes are planned. Congested routes as a result of movement to and from the scene can also cause transport problems. Therefore, the computation of shortest path/route needs to be done Real Time (RT). This is the area of GIS application where calculations are done in a short time using relevant data like the network map, expected degree of congestion on the routes, reliability of the routes and time of the day.

Tracking and Controlling of Traffic/Vehicles: Tracking and monitoring of vehicle movement is mostly achieved with mobile communication and Global Positioning System (GPS). The position of a vehicle is tracked via on-board GPS, transmitted to base via GSM (SMS or GPRS) and loaded into a GIS database where it is then managed and displayed on a mobile map. These days some mobile devices are capable of displaying GIS analyzed information. This combination of GPS, GSM and GIS for application into transportation is what is now referred to as Intelligent Transportation System (ITS).

Effective disaster management requires assimilation and dissemination of preplanned, historical and real-time information to many sources. Web based GIS makes spatial information accessible to a larger group of people in a fast, easy and cost effective manner and can be a one step forward in managing the multiple activities of the various agencies involved in the disaster management.
Among different types of disasters that Nepal is facing today, earthquake is the risky one because of its location in seismic prone area. Earthquake in Nepal is inevitable in future, as claimed by experts, and hence much to be done for effective disaster management. Transport sector has to play vital role in this regard. Though transport network may itself be affected by disasters, disaster relief work cannot go smoothly without first establishing efficient transport network. Use of GIS in transportation and disaster management is important aspect in moving towards establishing ITS within the country.


[1] J. Michael Thomson, “Toward Better Urban Transport Planning in Developing Countries, World Bank SPW600, November, 1983
[2] NSET-Nepal, GHI-USA, ”Kathmandu Valley Earthquake Risk Management Action Plan”, 1998, Nepal.
[3] Jeetendra kumar bohara, ramesh guragai,amod dixit, “Protection of Educational Buildings against Earthquakes: a Manual for Designers and Builders”, Kathmandu Nepal, 2002.
[4] Gu Zhi Kang, Hong Feng, “Design of Public Transportation Information System based on GIS”, South East University, Nanjing-210096, China.
[5] IKHU-OMOREGBE, “GIS FOR Transportation Management in Disaster Situations: Theories and Techniques of GIS”, SMART, 2003.
[6] Vikas Kitha, Sanjay Govil, “GIS in Public Transportation”, Map India Conference, 2003.
[7] Siddeswar Prasad HR, “Use of GIS in Transportation Management”, Map India Conference 2003.
[8] Naresh Raheja, Ruby Ojha, Sunil R Mallik, “Role of internet-based GIS in effective natural disaster management”, RSMI, India.

Traffic Problem in Kathmandu City

An overview of Traffic problem in Kathmandu City and the Concept of Urban Transport Management Planning

Author: Anil Marsani
Transportation College, South East University, Nanjing-210096, China
Email:- anilmarsani@hotmail.com
Tel:- 0086-25-83791509

This paper first points out the root causes of traffic problem in the capital city of Nepal (Kathmandu) and hence some of the remedial measures to solve the problems are put forward along with the introduction of the concept of urban transport management planning which is relatively new in the context of Nepal.

Keywords: urban transport, traffic problem, remedial measures, transport management planning

1. Introduction to present day traffic scenario in Kathmandu valley

During the past some years, the populations of many cities in the developing countries have doubled and this huge population growth has been accompanied by the rapid growth of city centers. In Nepal, although fast urban growth is fairly recent, the 6% annual population growth rate of Kathmandu generates a strong demand for the further land development, expansion of infrastructure and other important urban services. These changes have placed new and heavy demands on urban transport that the city has been unable to meet. This problem is particularly acute in the case of Nepal because of the lack of resources and the very high cost of transport infrastructure. It has arisen more rapidly and officials have been less able to deal with it as the major roads and the networks are generally small and of low standard. Beyond the failure to match supply and demand, the problem is exacerbated by failure to use the available roads efficiently. The main traffic problems that exist in the city can be summarized as below.

(a) Road space and Traffic Congestion: - According to reports there are 1,80,000 (most of them being two and three wheelers) vehicles registered at The Bagmati Transport Office at present. Considering the narrow roads and the small area that the city is built in, these vehicles are too many for a city like Kathmandu. The prevailing high degree of congestion, despite relatively low number of vehicles (private car ownership rate is relatively low though there is relatively high number of vehicles registered, the most of them being the two and three wheelers) is often attributed to the small proportion of urban space devoted to roads. It is also revealed that the annoying causes of traffic jams in the streets of the city are due to large number of motorbike riders. Traffic congestion is already an important constraint to urban productivity and the vehicular air pollution is increasing and posing a serious health threat to urban population.

(b) Accidents: - There has been an unprecedented trend in traffic accident in Kathmandu valley. While the vehicles are increasing in geometric proportion, the roads are being constructed at a snail’s pace. Accidents are increasing in number and severity (see table 1). Accidents occur more during working days when the traffic is heavy. According to a report by the Traffic Engineering and Safety Unit at the Departments of Roads, the frequency of accidents is at the peak at 4 pm followed by 8 am. Pedestrians are the ones who are most at risk, followed by motorcycle riders. Accidents also occur when holidays are near and mostly youngsters tend to drive under the influence of alcohol. Most accidents in the valley happen at intersections. The places in Kathmandu that witness accidents frequently include Teenkune, Koteshwor, Harihar Bhawan, Putali Sadak, Ring road and many other intersections, while nocturnal mishaps are more frequent on the Ring Road, Kantipath and Naya Baneshwor because of over speeding.

(c) The mixed traffic condition: - There is no doubt that the wide variety of traffic sharing the limited right of way is a serious factor in congestion. Most road sections in Kathmandu city are not channelized for motor vehicles, bicycles and pedestrians. The greater the pressure on road space, the more speeds of the slowest moving vehicles tend to be reduced, and the potential of faster public, commercial and private vehicles are wasted. Often pedestrians, market and parking activities intrude even the road space of major arteries. The greater number of traffic accidents and lower overall average speed of the vehicles in the streets are attributed to the large number of motorbikes and tempos.

(d) Parking: - It is one of the city’s chronic problems, particularly in the Business Districts and other sites where jobs and retail activities are concentrated. The limited road space is further reduced due to encroachment of the road space by street shops, vehicles and bicycle parking. In particular, parking on the sidewalks of the streets causes danger to pedestrians. In many cases, construction materials can be seen placed at footpath and sometimes even on the roads thus forcing the pedestrians to walk on the roadway which is primarily meant for the motor vehicles. This may cause a great deal of danger for the safety of the pedestrians. Many buses have to be parked on the streets. Bus terminals have not been well planned and cause a lot of transfer difficulties for the passengers.

(e) Public transport: - Public transport in Kathmandu city can be seen in general as a well connected but inadequate capacity is reflected in extreme over crowding during long periods of peak hour traffic and it takes a long time in reaching their destination. The development of public transport is often hindered by a lack of capacity, low operating speed, and outdated equipment and management practices. As there is no single bus terminus, finding the different places from where buses leave can sometimes be an experience because there is a lack of information at public places. Also the seating arrangements in most of these buses are such that you would hardly get to see the scene outside as you journey.

(f) Pedestrians and cyclists: - There is problem of movement by pedestrians and cyclists. Pedestrians (and particularly the safety of pedestrians) are generally not accorded adequate priority by the city officials responsible for planning and managing roads, as footpaths are inadequate and badly maintained. Pedestrian crossings are placed in a long walking distance and many people simply don’t cross the roads using the overhead bridge. There are no any rules and regulations regarding punishment for those who cross the road randomly. As a result walking and crossing streets in many places have become highly dangerous. Conditions for cyclists are even worse than for pedestrians. Bicycle riding is increasingly hazardous. As a result, this cheap and potentially very important mode of transport tends to be grossly underutilized.

(g) Road maintenance: - Roads are inadequately maintained. Visual inspection and evaluation of road network conditions show failures of the road pavement. A key factor contributing to this situation is the lack of funding for the maintenance by the government. The situation is exacerbated by the absence of computer based asset inventory and maintenance management systems. The available scarce resources are allocated to meet the most pressing demands. In addition to managing existing roads more efficiently additional capacity is needed by the construction of new roads.

(h) Urban patterns: - Physical patterns of cities also compound the difficulties. Central business districts are typically not so clearly demarcated as in the developed world. The main activities centers are however often concentrated in narrow streets prone to the intense congestion. High densities of intersections, winding configurations and changing road widths reduce capacity further.

(i) Road user education: - It has not been very efficient and had lacked proper methodology and facilities. The striking feature of the city traffic is the poor driving behavior. Driving standards are generally low. It may be amazing to know that many of the drivers have no idea about the traffic signs and rules, which indicates that our license issuing system is also extremely unscientific and impractical, and it is helping in adding traffic accidents indirectly. It is reported that in Kathmandu valley the number of accidents are higher than in the rest parts of Nepal and it can be said that the root cause of increasing traffic accidents is the lack of traffic awareness among drivers and also pedestrians.

(j) Traffic control measures: - Effective road capacity of the city is further reduced by extensive uncontrolled parking of vehicles of all kinds and by ineffective signaling and other traffic control measures. Manual control of junctions at peak hours is often required and traffic signal timings are not appropriate. None of all the existing traffic signals in the urban area are coordinated, most of them operating under two phase fixed time control. Although there have been some successful experiments with junction channelization recently in the city, the majority of the junctions have not been channelized and sometimes traffic island itself is creating the traffic problem due to its inappropriate placement and bad design. Traffic signs and markings are too much insufficient. Although some innovative pedestrian crossing facilities have been implemented in the city, there is still a striking need for better provision of pedestrian crossing facilities to give pedestrians safer ways to cross the road.

In summary, it can be said that road junctions are poorly designed, road surfaces and edges are in bad condition, pedestrians are undisciplined, vehicles are not road worthy, parking practices are chaotic and traffic signals are insufficiently used. In addition, whole burden of traffic management lies on the shoulder of valley traffic police, and sometimes police control is very weak due to bad practices of some police officers. Though some modern traffic management practices are developing in some areas, experience in most is limited to the use of traffic signals. There is also lack of an adequately sizes core group of younger professions who have the skills and training in transport planning and analysis, road network design, road maintenance and traffic management with practical hands on experience.
Table 1

Year 050/051 051/052 052/053 053/054 054/055 055/056 056/057 057/058 058/todate
No. Of accidents 1987 2755 2372 2396 2081 2197 1875 2055 1805
No. Of fatal accident 93 85 104 72 82 98 75 124 109
No of injured 852 1028 1052 1120 945 1448 1042 1294 1336
No of seriously injured 94 143 175 145 124 184 89 265 182

2. Remedial measures: -

As mentioned earlier, with the very rapid growth in demand for transport, Kathmandu is facing serious traffic problems. The immediate concern in the city is to maintain the existing levels of service of the road system and personal mobility, whilst reducing the potential for road accidents. For this, traffic management measures are to be utilized which typically will include junction improvements, one way streets, segregation of two wheel vehicles with motor vehicle, channelization, markings, signaling, selective road widening and provision of pedestrian facilities, continuous traffic awareness program through the involvement of all the sectors of the society. But traffic management is the concern of the number of policy and executive agencies. As a result there is pressing need for close coordination, effective decision making machinery and enforcement, and clearly defined responsibilities because the success or failure of traffic management measures largely depend on the institutional arrangements.

If the traffic management is to be truly effective in contributing towards the development of an efficient and safe urban transport system, it must interface and be coordinated with five other areas of responsibilities, which include:
v Strategic planning of urban development
v Engineering, design and construction of transport infrastructure
v Public road operations
v Road safety programs
v Law enforcement

The following steps are helpful in managing the traffic problem of the Kathmandu city:

(a) Avoidance of needless and needlessly long journey: - Land use must be arranged so that residential areas are mixed (in income and type) and are provided with nearby opportunities for employment, shopping, education and entertainment, as much as these things can be efficiently provided on a local scale. With this the demand management for the transport facilities can be pursued efficiently. There is also a need to correct structural deficiencies in the road network while improving traffic management. The roads should be widened where possible and necessary and intersections should be redesigned to optimize its capacity.

(b) Road safety: - Ensuring road safety is one of the major objectives of any traffic management system. From a traffic management perspective, the requirement is to optimize both road safety and the need to ensure public mobility. Implementation or change in different traffic management measures has its own pros and therefore it is extremely important that the wider implications of any changes should be taken into consideration. Consideration of the needs of the most vulnerable traveler groups, cyclists and pedestrians, should be adequately addressed by providing separate cycle track and enough space for the footpath. All of the concerned agencies including the traffic police, department of roads, department of transport management, municipalities, private vehicle entrepreneurs have to have better coordination to prevent accidents. At present valley traffic police is conducting road users awareness program via traffic weeks. It is encouraging to see the participation of different sections, including schools and NGOs in helping the traffic police in this matter.

(c) Public transport: - There is an urgent need to finance on public transportation sector by the government. The trolley bus and Sajha Bus in the valley have restarted their services recently but their management still needs to be restructured. There is a need to improve public transport sector by replacing expired assets, catching up on maintenance and rehabilitation backlogs and expanding capacity. A policy is needed which a) maximizes operational efficiency of public transport b) improve cost recovery by setting fares at a reasonable level and c) sets user charges for private sector modes at a level which recognizes true costs and uses the revenues to assist public transport.

(d) Air pollution: - Combating the air pollution problem in the Kathmandu valley requires the introduction of efficient transportation system. Environment friendly vehicles will have to be part of that system. Electric Vehicles (EV) has a reduced noise level. They are appropriate for the Kathmandu valley and also in other cities in Nepal because EV operations suits low traffic speeds, short traveling distances, and mobility in narrow roads. Therefore EV operation should be accorded a high priority in the context of the ever-deteriorating air quality of Kathmandu but it may have some problem in the undulated areas due to its tractive power.

(e) Parking control: - Parking control is an important traffic control management tool. There is a need to carry out a parking study in order to develop a parking plan for the city that is coordinated with other road network, traffic management measures and urban development strategy. Some open space available can be effectively used for this purpose and bus bays are to be constructed for the public bus service in the city.

(f) Urban traffic control measures: - In their most simple form, such systems may control one or a few sets of traffic signals, often incorporating some form of co-ordination in order to minimize overall travel time. More complex systems may be demand responsive either optimizing a particular set of traffic signals or a wider grouping of signals. Further developments of such systems allow the detection of incidents such as accidents, the provision of special priority for emergency vehicles, priority to public transport vehicles and travel information systems which issue warnings of delays, or parking information. The use modern traffic management system like Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) should be gradually started in the city to cope with the traffic problem.
3. Concept of urban transport management planning

As the urban traffic problem is mainly due to the lack of supply in comparison to the demand so the basic way to solve the problem is substantial expansion of road capacity when the demand for urban transport grows so that the demand can be met but emphasizing only in the construction of facilities is not going to solve the urban traffic problem as the construction of new transportation facilities, though reduces the travel time, but also produces a new demand, and after some period of time the new level of congestion will be reached.

Over the past some decades, the solution approach of urban transportation problem in the developed countries has changed from capital-intensive to management-intensive schemes. It has been recognized that many transport problems can be resolved without large-scale investment in transport facilities. But the transportation facilities in the developing country like Nepal are far from required and the available facilities are also not evenly distributed. Therefore implementation of efficient traffic management plans and the construction of basic transport infrastructures should be conducted side by side.

As the urban transport management is the sole direction in solving the urban transport problem, there should be a scientific solution to the questions like what does urban transport planning do, what is the target group, when, where and how to apply the urban transport management schemes. Answers to these questions have given scope to the development of the concept of urban transport management planning. Urban transport management planning is a scientific process of determining the rules of vehicle movement (transporting objects) in the urban road network and the policies to obtain the required target or the operational process.

In the context of Nepal, there is lack of serious attention by the concerned authority in the field of urban traffic management. There is no institution involved in conducting the systematic study of urban traffic management planning. The traffic management and safety unit of department of roads is the only government unit working in this field. In addition, whole burden of traffic management lies on the shoulder of traffic police and there is also lack of coordination between the different concerned authorities. As there is lack of scientific study in this field, the use of some management techniques also lack of their theoretical basis which results in inappropriate decision making thus further wasting the scarce resources. So there is an urgent need for the institute building with sufficient human and physical resources to perform the traffic management task and the same time the study on traffic management planning should be conducted to produce some results in this field that is best suited to the traffic condition of the country.
4. Conclusion: -

The urban transport problem is fundamentally similar in all large cities throughout the world. The basic causes are the same and so are many of the consequences although there are some differences of degree between developed and developing cities. But while the problems are similar, the solutions are not. Rich cities can afford motorways, multistory car parks, rapid transit and sophisticated control systems but in the case of Nepal and its capital Kathmandu it is irrelevant since it can’t afford them anyway. The only possible solution at present is a low cost solution, which in practice means extensive bus priorities, traffic management and traffic restraint together with selective road improvements. And for this purpose there is a great need of proper transport management planning to determine cost effective solution.
[1] Wang Wei, “Urban traffic management planning-methods, technique, software and demonstration projects [R]”, Beijing, (Ministry of Public Security, Ministry of Construction “ smooth traffic projects” expert group, 2002).
[2] Wang Wei, Xu Jie Xian, Yan Tao etc., “Urban traffic planning- theory and practice [M]”, South East university pres, Nanjing, 1998.
[3] Yin Hong Liang, “Study on Theoretical system of Urban Transport Management Planning and its key problems”, PhD Dissertation, South East University, Nanjing, China. September 2002.
[4] J. Michael Thomson, “Toward Better Urban Transport Planning in Developing Countries, World Bank SPW600, November, 1983.
[5] Various articles published on the National Newspaper like The Kathmandu Post, The Rising Nepal, Gorkhapatra, Kantipur etc.